An Essay The nation state as the general form of state organisation is a product of the last years.
The Cartesian and Kantian distrust of tradition for autonomous reason In addition, the 19th century can be said to add the following facets to modernity: Emergence of social science and anthropology Romanticism and Early Existentialism Naturalist approaches to art and description Evolutionary thinking in geology, biology, politics, and social sciences Beginnings of modern psychology Emancipation Defining Characteristics of Modernity There have been numerous attempts, particularly in the field of sociology, to understand what modernity is.
A wide variety of terms are used to describe the society, social life, driving force, symptomatic mentality, or some other defining aspects of modernity.
To an extent, it is reasonable to doubt the very possibility of a descriptive concept that can adequately capture diverse realities of societies of various historical contexts, especially non-European ones, let alone a three-stage model of social evolution from premodernity to postmodernity.
As one can see above, often seemingly opposite forces such as objectivism and subjectivism, individualism and the nationalism, democratization and totalitarianism are attributed to modernity, and there are perhaps reasons to argue why each is a result of the modern world.
In terms of social structure, for example, many of the defining events and characteristics listed above stem from a transition from relatively isolated local communities to a more integrated large-scale society.
Understood this way, modernization might be a general, abstract process which can be found in many different parts of histories, rather than a unique event in Europe. In general, large-scale integration involves: Increased movement of goods, capital, people, and information among formerly separate areas, and increased influence that reaches beyond a local area.
Increased formalization of those mobile elements, development of 'circuits' on which those elements and influences travel, and standardization of many aspects of the society in general that is conducive to the mobility.
Increased specialization of different segments of society, such as the division of labor, and interdependency among areas. Seemingly contradictory characteristics ascribed to modernity are often different aspects of this process.
For example, unique local culture is invaded and lost by the increased mobility of cultural elements, such as recipes, folktales, and hit songs, resulting in a cultural homogenization across localities, but the repertoire of available recipes and songs increases within a area because of the increased interlocal movement, resulting in a diversification within each locality.
This is manifest especially in large metropolises where there are many mobile elements. Centralized bureaucracy and hierarchical organization of governments and firms grows in scale and power in an unprecedented manner, leading some to lament the stifling, cold, rationalist or totalitarian nature of modern society.
Yet individuals, often as replaceable components, may be able to move in those social subsystems, creating a sense of liberty, dynamic competition and individualism for others. This is especially the case when a modern society is compared with premodern societies, in which the family and social class one is born into shapes one's life-course to a greater extent.
At the same time, however, such an understanding of modernity is certainly not satisfactory to many, because it fails to explain the global influence of West European and American societies since the Renaissance.
What has made Western Europe so special? There have been two major answers to this question. First, an internal factor is that only in Europe, through the Renaissance humanists and early modern philosophers and scientists, rational thinking came to replace many intellectual activities that had been under heavy influence of convention, superstition, and religion.
This line of answer is most frequently associated with Max Weber, a sociologist who is known to have pursued the answer to the above question.
Second, an external factor is that colonization, starting as early as the Age of Discovery, created exploitative relations between European countries and their colonies.
It is also notable that such commonly-observed features of many modern societies as the nuclear family, slavery, gender roles, and nation states do not necessarily fit well with the idea of rational social organization in which components such as people are treated equally.
While many of these features have been dissolving, histories seem to suggest those features may not be mere exceptions to the essential characteristics of modernization, but necessary parts of it.
Modernity as Hope, Modernity as Doom Modernization brought a series of seemingly indisputable benefits to people. Lower infant mortality rate, decreased death from starvation, eradication of some of the fatal diseases, more equal treatment of people with different backgrounds and incomes, and so on.
To some, this is an indication of the potential of modernity, perhaps yet to be fully realized. In general, rational, scientific approach to problems and the pursuit of economic wealth seems still to many a reasonable way of understanding good social development.
At the same time, there are a number of dark sides of modernity pointed out by sociologists and others. Technological development occurred not only in the medical and agricultural fields, but also in the military.
The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II, and the following nuclear arms race in the post-war era, are considered by some as symbols of the danger of technologies that humans may or may not be able to handle wisely.
Stalin's Great Purges and the Holocaust or Shoah are considered by some as indications that rational thinking and rational organization of a society might involve exclusion, or extermination, of non-standard elements.Published: Mon, 5 Dec Some characteristics of modern nation state are a nation state serves as one having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, a particular nation and also as a territory; it is also a political and geopolitical entity.
Definitions and Characteristics of Modernity Since the term "Modern" is used to describe a wide range of periods, any definition of modernity must account for the context in question. Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity, Medieval, and Modern.
A nation state (or nation "Legitimate states that govern effectively and dynamic industrial economies are widely regarded today as the defining characteristics of a modern nation-state." they often put so much emphasis on the importance of the nation state in modern times, that they distort the history of earlier periods in order to.
The Nation State: An Essay. The nation state as the general form of state organisation is a product of the last years. Before then, most of the world was ruled by empires, whether colonial (such as the British) or territorial (such as the Russian).
Definitions and Characteristics of Modernity: Since the term "Modern" is used to describe a wide range of periods, any definition of modernity must account for the context in question.
Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity, Medieval, and Modern. There are many defining characteristics that allow countries and groups of The modern state The rise of the "modern state" as a public power constituting the supreme political authority within a defined territory An Essay on the Characteristics and Development of Ancient City-States A city-state is defined as an independent or.